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Monitoring endoscopic postoperative recurrence in Crohn’s disease after an ileocecal resection. Does capsule endoscopy have a role in the short and long term?

Ahead of print available from 27/06/2022
These articles are scheduled for publication in Vol. 85 (3) 2022

Author(s) A. Elosua 1, M. Rullan 1, S. Rubio 2, I. Elizalde 2, C. Rodriguez 2, M. R. Aznárez 2, M. Vicuña 2, J.F. Juanmartiñena 2, I. Fernández-Urién 2, Ó. Nantes 2
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(1) Gastroenterology Unit. Hospital García Orcoyen. Estella, Spain
(2) Gastroenterology Department. Hospital Universitario de Navarra. Pamplona, Spain

Background: Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) is a noninvasive method to detect endoscopic postoperative recurrence (POR) after an ileocolonic resection in Crohn’s Disease (CD). Few studies have evaluated the role of SBCE in the early POR (= 12 months). Data for detection of late POR (>12 months) and evaluation of treatment response in previous POR is scarce. We aimed to assess the SBCE performance in the three scenarios (early-POR, late-POR, and previous-POR)

Methods: Retrospective 11-year cohort study of SBCE procedures performed on CD patients with ileocolonic resection. Disease activity by Rutgeerts score (RS), correlation with biomarkers, and therapeutic changes were recorded.

Results: We included 113 SBCE procedures (34 early-POR, 44 late-POR, and 35 previous-POR). 105 procedures (92.9%) were complete and 97 SBCE (85.5%) were conclusive with no differences between groups. Relevant POR (RS ≥i2) was more frequent in the early-POR group compared to late-POR (58.8% vs 27.3%, p=0.02). In the previous-POR, RS improved in 43.5% of procedures, worsened in 26%, and remained unchanged in 30.5%. Fecal calprotectin (FCP) value of 100µg/g displayed the best accuracy: sensitivity 53.8%, specificity 78.8%, positive predictive value 66.7% and negative predictive value 68.4%. SBCE guided therapeutic changes in 43 patients (38%). No adverse events occurred in our cohort.

Conclusion: SBCE is a safe and effective method to assess POR in the early and late setting in clinical practice, and for the evaluation of treatment response to previous POR. FCP is an accurate surrogate marker of POR and 100µg/g value had the best overall accuracy.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease, capsule endoscopy, postoperative recurrence
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.