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Clinical features and risk factors for ischemic colitis in young and middle-aged patients

Ahead of print available from 04/02/2022
These articles are scheduled for publication in Vol. 85 (2) 2021

Author(s) W. Cai 1, J. Zhu 1, D. Hu 1
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(1) Department of Gastroenterology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu ,215004, China.

Background and study aims: Ischemic colitis (IC) is thought to occur more frequently in the elderly, but the incidence in young and middle-aged adults is increasing. This study determined the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for young and middleaged IC patients.

Patients and methods: The medical records of 190 IC patients from 2010-2020 were reviewed. The clinical features of the young and middle-aged IC group (group A, < 60 years [n=70]) were compared to the elderly IC (group B, =60 years [n=120]) and age- and gender-matched colon polyp groups (group C, <60 years [n=272]). Independent risk factors for IC in group A were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: There were no significant differences in groups A and B with respect to season of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment, or recurrences. The main symptoms of group A were abdominal pain (98.6%) and hematochezia (98.6%). Lesions commonly involved the left half of the colon (87.1%) and the clinical conditions were generally not severe. The percentage of patients with constipation (11.4% vs. 4.0%, P=0.034) and using a calcium channel antagonist (21.4% vs. 11.4%, P=0.028) was significantly higher in group A than group C. Regression analysis demonstrated that constipation (OR 2.831, P=0.037) and taking a calcium channel antagonist (OR 2.486, P=0.012) were closely associated with the occurrence of IC in group A.

Conclusions: Constipation and taking a calcium channel antagonist were independent risk factors for the onset of IC in young and middle-aged adults. Among young and middle-aged adults with abdominal pain and bloody stools who also have constipation or are taking a calcium channel antagonist to treat hypertension, the diagnosis of IC should be considered.

Keywords: Ischemic colitis, young and middle-aged, clinical features, risk factors
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.