Dumping syndrome after bariatric surgery: prevalence, pathophysiology and role in weight reduction – a systematic review
|Journal||Volume 86 - 2023|
|Issue||Fasc.3 - Reviews|
|Author(s)||A. D’hoedt 1, T. Vanuytsel 2|
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(1) Faculty of Medicine, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium
(2) Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Chronic Diseases and Metabolism (ChroMeta) KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium
Background: Dumping syndrome is a frequent and wellknown adverse event after bariatric surgery and covers a dynamic spectrum of early and late dumping. Accelerated gastric emptying is generally considered to be the cause of gastrointestinal and vasomotor complaints. However, there is much uncertainty regarding the exact pathophysiology of dumping. It has been speculated that the syndrome is a desired consequence of bariatric surgery and contributes to more efficient weight loss, but supporting data are scarce.
Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed in July-August 2021. The prevalence of dumping after the most frequently performed bariatric procedures was analyzed, as well as underlying pathophysiology and its role in weight reduction.
Results: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with the highest postoperative prevalence of dumping. The fast transit induces neurohumoral changes which contribute to an imbalance between postprandial glucose and insulin levels, resulting in hypoglycemia which is the hallmark of late dumping. Early dumping can, when received in a positive way, become a tool to maintain a strict dietary pattern, but no significant relationship to the degree of weight loss has been shown. However, late dumping is detrimental and promotes overall higher caloric intake.
Conclusion: Dumping syndrome is common after bariatric surgery, especially after RYGB. The pathophysiology is complex and ambiguous. Currently available data do not support dumping as a necessary condition to induce weight loss after bariatric surgery.
Keywords: dumping syndrome, bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, weight loss.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.