Volume 84 - 2021 - Fasc.1 - Reviews
Venous thromboembolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease : review of literature and practical algorithms
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with several extra-intestinal complications, including venous thromboembolism (VTE). In patients with IBD, VTE occurs at younger age and is associated with higher recurrence and mortality rates as compared to patients without IBD. The risk appears to be higher during active disease and hospitalization.
In this review we target the importance of prophylaxis and aim to describe strategies for treatment of VTE in patients with IBD. More awareness is needed, given the fact that VTE is often preventable with appropriate pharmacological prophylaxis. Algorithms are provided on which patients should be given prophylaxis and on treatment duration of VTE in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Fecal microbiota transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy : a review of the current evidence and future perspectives
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a leading cause of hospitalization and morbimortality in advanced cirrhosis with limited therapeutic options available. Given the paramount role of gut microbiota in HE, and the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in other diseases, this review intends to summarize the evidence supporting the safety, efficacy and future perspectives of FMT in HE. Current evidence, despite being scarce, points towards FMT being a safe, effective and tolerable procedure in HE. Some unanswered questions remain about the optimal dose, the administration route, the long term effects and the selection of the optimal donor. Future trials, some of which are already underway, will provide us additional evidence and hopefully the necessary answers.