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Volume 83 - 2020 - Fasc.1 - Original articles

Comparative study of tissue adhesive therapy versus band ligation in control of actively bleeding esophageal varices

Background and study aims : Bleeding esophageal varices is a common life-threatening emergency that carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Acute variceal bleeding is considered active when spurting and/or oozing varix is seen at the time of endoscopy, or inactive in the presence of large esophageal varices with blood in the stomach with no other bleeding source at the time of endoscopy. Aim: comparing endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) versus cyanoacrylate injection (CI) in active esophageal variceal bleeding control. Patients and methods : a retrospective single tertiary center study from April 2014 to February 2018, including 401 patients with active esophageal variceal bleeding. Results : Endoscopic hemostasis was achieved by both endoscopic variceal ligation in 182 patients (91.9%) and cyanoacrylate injection in 197 patients (97.05%) without significant difference (P value 0. 15). Re-bleeding occurred more frequently in EVL group 20 patients (10.1%) compared to 14 patients (6.9%) in CI (P value 0.01). Early six-week Mortality was higher among EVL group (20.7%) compared to CI (17.2%) without statistical significance (P value 0.3). Conclusion : Both EVL and CI are almost as effective in achieving endoscopic hemostasis. CI is more effective, feasible, and could be used as a salvage therapy and/or spared for risky active bleeding esophageal varices. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 5-10).


High mortality rate of oesophageal perforation is associated with delayed hospital admission : a prospective observational case series study

Βackground : Τo assess mortality rate of oesophageal perforation cases and study their etiology, diagnosis and management in a single specialized UK centre. Patients and methods : A prospective observational study was performed between January 2012 and January 2015. All consecutive patients admitted with acute iatrogenic or spontaneous esophageal perforation were included. Αnastomotic leak patients were excluded. Patients were managed conservatively, endoscopically, surgically or with a combination of the above. Primary outcome was mortality rate and its association with time to hospital admission. Secondary outcomes were nature of perforation, anatomic location, type of management as well as length of hospital stay and surgical complication rate. Results : There were 13 cases included. Mean patients’ age was 58.3 years. Overall 90-day mortality rate was 38.4% (n=5), while 30-day mortality rate 30.8% (n=4). Admission within 24 hours of perforation was recorded in 69.2% of patients (n=9). The main anatomic location of perforation was the lower third of the esophagus in 53.8% (n=7). Operative management was adopted in 53.8% of cases (n=7). Mean hospital stay was 58.3 days. Mean follow-up was 3.1 years, while no patient developed any complication from the perforation or surgery. Conclusions : Mortality following esophageal perforation is at approximately 40%, while there is a significant impact of time of presentation on prognosis. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 11- 14).


Effectiveness and persistence of Vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease : results from the Belgian REal-LIfe study with VEdolizumab (Be-RELIVE)

Background and study aims : Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a gutselective integrin inhibitor used to treat Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). This retrospective study assessed effectiveness and treatment persistence of VDZ in a Belgian real-life cohort of CD and UC patients. Patients and methods : CD and UC patients from 15 Belgian centers, who started VDZ between 01/09/2015 and 31/06/2016 and attended ≥1 visit after the first VDZ infusion, were included. Data were collected before first infusion, at week (W)10, W14 (CD patients only), month (M)6 and last follow-up. Treatment response and remission rates (changes in disease activity scores) and treatment persistence (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were assessed. Results : Of the 348 patients receiving at least one dose of VDZ, 325 (202 CD, 45 biologic-naïve; and 123 UC, 42 biologic-naïve) patients were included in data analyses. At M6, 87.6% (176/201) of CD and 86.1% (105/122) of UC patients were still on VDZ treatment, 75.6% (34/45) and 83.9% (26/31) achieved clinical response, and 66.7% (44/66) and 42.9% (15/35) were in remission. At M6 remission rates was significantly higher while response rates tended to be higher among biologic-naïve versus biologic-failure CD patients. Conclusions : VDZ offers an effective treatment option in real-life settings and treatment effectiveness appears higher in biologic-naïve versus biologic-failure CD patients. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 15-23).


Quality of care in an inflammatory bowel disease clinical trial center : a prospective study evaluating patients’ satisfaction

Background & study aims : Quality of care is a very timely topic in medicine. We designed a questionnaire to measure perceived quality of care and to explore areas of improvement. Patients & methods : In this prospective study a questionnaire was developed and administered to all patients with inflammatory bowel disease participating in a randomized clinical trial. The questionnaire was based on validated surveys and supplemented with novel, relevant questions. Factors associated with (poor) quality of care were identified. Results : Between October 2016 and January 2017, all 107 patients participating in a randomized controlled trial completed the questionnaire (63% male, 76% ulcerative colitis, median age of 47 years). The median satisfaction score was 9 out of 10. Areas of improvement were that too little attention was paid to the disease impact on family and work, dietary and exercise pattern, daily activities and quality of life. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical remission [5.77 (2.03-16.39), p=0.001] was a predictor of good quality of care. Conclusions : In this large IBD trial bureau, inflammatory bowel disease patients were very satisfied with the quality of care. Domains for quality improvement, such as attention to the impact of IBD on family and work, were identified. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 25-31).


Increased gallstone formation after sleeve gastrectomy and the preventive role of ursodeoxycholic acid

Background and study aims : To investigate the incidence of gallstone formation, and the use of Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA), weight loss and serum lipid profile changes following obesity surgery. Patients and methods : Patients who underwent bariatric surgery due to obesity were retrospectively reviewed and divided into 2 groups for their prophylactic UDCA use. Patients who had a previous gallbladder pathology and ones who did not have a preoperative ultrasonography (US) were excluded. The patients who have returned to our clinic for a control ultrasound between 6 and 18 months following the surgery were included in this study, but only if they did not have any gall bladder pathology demonstrated with an US prior to surgery. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile measurements were also recorded. Results : Of the 108 patients who had undergone obesity surgery, it is reported that 42 (38.9%) were given UDCA as a preventative medication, and 66 (61.1%) were not prescribed any preventative medications. During the ultrasound controls in the postoperative period between 6 and 18 months after surgery, gallbladder stones were seen in 42 patients (38.9%) and biliary sludge development was detected in 5 patients (4.6%). A total of 47 patients (43.5%) developed gallbladder pathology. Fewer patients who took UDCA developed gallstones when compared with the patients who did not take UDCA (10% vs 33%). Also, there is a correlation between BMI loss rate and the frequency of gallstone development. Though the decrease in triglyceride (TG) levels was higher in patients with gallstone development, this decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusions : Stone or sludge development in the gallbladder due to rapid weight loss after obesity surgery is quite common. However, we observed that the gallstone development decreased significantly with the prophylactic use of UDCA in patients who had undergone obesity surgery. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 33-38).