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Volume 84 - 2021 - Fasc.2 - Reviews

Portal vein thrombosis: an overview of current treatment options

Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a splanchnic vascular disorder characterised by a recent or chronic thrombotic occlusion of the portal venous system. Its aetiology is miscellaneous, and its management is demanding since PVT can play a critical role as far as morbidity and mortality are concerned. Indeed, PVT can develop as a complication of portal hypertension (PH), in association or not with advanced chronic liver disease, and aggravate its clinical consequences such as variceal bleeding and ascites. Furthermore, a diagnosis of PVT in a non-cirrhotic context can potentially reveal a previously unknown hypercoagulable condition, requiring further diagnostic steps and specific treatment in addition to anticoagulation. In addition to established therapeutic approaches, new strategies, including newer pharmacological treatments and interdisciplinary invasive procedures, gain more attention and have been increasingly introduced into clinical practice. This review aims at discussing the current knowledge in terms of treatment options for PVT.


Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis: systematic review

Background and aim : Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a potentially life-threatening infection in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Its prevention is vital to improve prognosis of cirrhotic patients. The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate what is the most efficacious and safest antibiotic prophylactic strategy. Methods : Studies were located by searching PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials evaluating primary or secondary spontaneous bacterial peritonitis prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with ascites were included. The selection of studies was performed in two stages: screening of titles and abstracts, and assessment of the full papers identified as relevant, considering the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted in a standardized way and synthesized qualitatively. Results : Fourteen studies were included. This systematic review demonstrated that daily norfloxacin is effective as a prophylactic antibiotic for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. Once weekly ciprofloxacin was not inferior to once daily norfloxacin, with good tolerance and no induced resistance. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and norfloxacin have similar efficacy for primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, however, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with an increased risk of developing an adverse event. Rifaximin was more effective than norfloxacin in the secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with a significant decrease in adverse events and mortality rate. Conclusions : Continuous long-term selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin is the most widely used prophylactic strategy in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, yet other equally effective and safe options are available.


Buschke-Löwenstein tumor in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient : a case report and short literature review

Giant condyloma acuminatum, also known as Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, is a rare variant of verrucous carcinoma presenting in the ano-genital region. While its metastatic potential is limited, aggressive local growth is common, with invasion and destruction of the surrounding tissues often causing important therapeutic challenges. Also, data to inform the optimal management approach are scarce and mostly limited to anectodical reports. We present the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-associated locally advanced Buschke Löwenstein tumor that was successfully treated with extensive surgery.