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Volume 85 - 2022 - Fasc.1 - Reviews

Isolated amyloidosis of the gastro-intestinal tract

Amyloidosis is a very rare condition, which, due to its rarity, is often missed or diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality. In this review we describe the existing types of amyloidosis focusing on the gastro-intestinal tract. Amyloidosis occurs when abnormal protein fibrils (amyloid) deposit in the muscularis mucosae. This can cause an array of symptoms ranging from (in order of occurrence): gastro-intestinal bleeding, heartburn, unintentional weight loss, early satiety, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fecal incontinence (1). Treatment is focused on the underlying condition (if any) causing the production and deposition of the abnormal fibrils, in combination of symptomatic treatment.


Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a case report with review of the literature and practical guidance for the clinician

Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare but debilitating and severe form of gastrointestinal dysmotility. The diagnosis is often made very late in the disease course due to its rarity and complexity. Treatment is mainly supportive, as there is no definitive cure. Pharmacologic therapy comprises prokinetics, antibiotics for bacterial overgrowth and pain management. Pain can also be alleviated with intestinal decompression in selected cases. Beside the pharmacologic therapy, nutrition and fluid replacement play a key role. Rarely, intestinal transplantation is necessary in patients with CIPO and intestinal failure. In this review, we describe an advanced CIPO case and provide an update of the clinical and diagnostic features and current management strategies. The goal of our review is to raise awareness around CIPO and to give practical guidance for the clinician.