Volume 85 - 2022 - Fasc.2 - Original articles
Continuous ADR50 monitoring through automated linkage between endoscopy and pathology: a quality improvement initiative in a Brussels public hospital
Background and study aim: Adenoma detection rate in patients aged 50 years or older (ADR50) is considered by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) a key performance measures for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Technical and human resources constrain implementation of recording quality monitoring. The aim was to deploy an infrastructure for continuous monitoring of endoscopy quality indicators. And to evaluate its potential benefit on quality performance.
Methods: A company reporting system was adapted by adding a dedicated tab for quality monitoring, including: preparation, progression, number of resected polyps. Automated linkage with the pathology database resulted in continuous monitoring of inter alia: rate of adequate bowel preparation, cecal intubation rate and ADR50. Continuous monitoring was done for all nine endoscopists working at our center, with individual feedback after 4, 9 and 28 months.
Results: A total of 1434 colonoscopies were performed during the first 9 months of monitoring, 682 during the first 4 months, 752 during the following 5 months. Five months after feedback a global increase in ADR50 of 4.6% (22.9% to 27.5%) (P<0.05) was observed, compared to the first 4 months. Thus meeting the benchmark (≥25%) recommended by ESGE. A durable effect of monitoring and feedback was observed after 28 months (ADR50: 29.4%).
Conclusions: An easy to use infrastructure for registration of quality monitoring in daily endoscopy practice, automatically linking the pathology database, facilitates continuous monitoring of endoscopy quality indicators. A global and durable ADR50 increase was observed after feedback, considered a quality improvement in performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at our center.
Effect of enhanced personal protective equipment on colonoscopy performance and pain linked to procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic
Background and study aim: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of standard personal protective equipment (SPPE) reduces transmission risks during endoscopic procedures. Our aim was to assess the effect of enhanced personal protective equipment (EPPE) on colonoscopy performance and pain linked to the procedure compared with SPPE.
Patients and methods: During two similar periods with three- month duration (in 2019 and in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic), electronic medical records and colonoscopy reports were investigated for sequential patients undergoing colonoscopy. SPPE was used in 2019 and EPPE in 2020. The patients’ clinical data and information related to the procedure were collected and analyzed. Primary outcomes were the duration to intubate the cecum, total procedure duration and patient pain score at the end of the procedure. Secondary outcomes were adenoma detection rate (ADR), polyp detection rate (PDR) and cecal intubation rate (CIR).
Results: A total of 426 patients with colonoscopy performed were analyzed. The demographic features and indications for colonoscopy were similar for patients in both groups. The EPPE group had higher values for the parameters assessed as primary endpoints of cecal intubation time, withdrawal time, total procedure time and pain at the end of the procedure compared to the SPPE group and the differences were statistically significant.
Conclusion: Our findings show that though the use of EPPE negatively affected colonoscopy performance and patient pain at the end of the procedure, it had no effect on the colonoscopy quality indices such as ADR, PDR and CIR.
Prevalence of double incontinence in patients with fecal incontinence undergoing anorectal manometry and discriminating factors
Background: Double incontinence (DI) is the concomitant presence of incontinence for urine and stool. Aim of this study is to assess prevalence of DI in patients with fecal incontinence (FI) undergoing Ano-Rectal Manometry (ARM) in a tertiary care center and to identify factors discriminating between both.
Methods: Medical records of consecutive patients referred for ARM for FI during 2 years at University Hospital Brussels were retrospectively reviewed. Results from ARM, presence of diarrhea, diseases from recto-anal or peri-anal region, prior abdominal, proctological or urological surgery and neurological comorbidities were recorded.
Results: Of 101 enrolled patients, 77% suffered from solitary FI and 23% from DI. Diarrhea was more common in DI vs. FI (43,5% vs. 15,4%, P=.008), as was the presence of neurological comorbidities (34.8% vs. 10.3%, P=.009) and urological interventions (21.7% vs. 1.3%, P=.002). In respect to women only, more urological interventions were performed (20% vs. 0%, P=.006) and more diseases from recto-anal or peri-anal region were encountered in DI vs. FI (35.0 % vs. 12.5 %, P= .045). In men, neurological disorders were significantly more common in DI (100.0% vs. 3.3%, P=.002).
Conclusions: This study identified gender-specific patterns of comorbidities in FI and DI. ARM had no distinctive value between FI and DI in men and women. A prospective study should provide more information on patients at risk for incontinence and help to identify distinct features between FI and DI in men and women.
Clinical features and risk factors for ischemic colitis in young and middle-aged patients
Background and study aims: Ischemic colitis (IC) is thought to occur more frequently in the elderly, but the incidence in young and middle-aged adults is increasing. This study determined the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for young and middle- aged IC patients.
Patients and methods: The medical records of 190 IC patients from 2010-2020 were reviewed. The clinical features of the young and middle-aged IC group (group A, < 60 years [n=70]) were compared to the elderly IC (group B, ≥60 years [n=120]) and age- and gender-matched colon polyp groups (group C, <60 years [n=272]). Independent risk factors for IC in group A were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: There were no significant differences in groups A and B with respect to season of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment, or recurrences. The main symptoms of group A were abdominal pain (98.6%) and hematochezia (98.6%). Lesions commonly involved the left half of the colon (87.1%) and the clinical conditions were generally not severe. The percentage of patients with constipation (11.4% vs. 4.0%, P=0.034) and using a calcium channel antagonist (21.4% vs. 11.4%, P=0.028) was significantly higher in group A than group C. Regression analysis demonstrated that constipation (OR 2.831, P=0.037) and taking a calcium channel antagonist (OR 2.486, P=0.012) were closely associated with the occurrence of IC in group A.
Conclusions: Constipation and taking a calcium channel antagonist were independent risk factors for the onset of IC in young and middle-aged adults. Among young and middle-aged adults with abdominal pain and bloody stools who also have constipation or are taking a calcium channel antagonist to treat hypertension, the diagnosis of IC should be considered.
First-line therapies for H. pylori infection in Italy: a pooled-data analysis
Background: Curing H. pylori infection remains challenging, and the use of most effective first-line therapy represents a therapeutic cornerstone. To monitor the efficacy of first-line therapies in Italy, we designed a systematic review with pooled- data analysis of data published in the last 15 years.
Methods: The search was focused on standard regimens and adult patients. Studies that included modified therapy regimens, pediatric patients, case series with less than 5 patients, and those in language other than English were excluded.
Results: A total of 40 studies, with 74 therapeutic arms and 13,539 patients were evaluated. Among the 14-day triple therapies, the combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin achieved the highest (77.9%) success rate, whilst the lowest success rate (62.7%) was observed following the 14-day PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole regimen. The overall efficacy of triple therapies significantly decreased from 75.7% to 72.1% in the last decade. Sequential (88.3% on 3431 patients), concomitant (88.8% on 376 patients), and the bismuth-based quadruple therapy with three-in-one capsule, containing bismuth subcitrate potassium (140 mg), metronidazole (125 mg), tetracycline (125 mg) (90.4% on 999 patients) achieved similarly high eradication rates, but data on concomitant are still limited. The bismuth-based was associated with the higher (38.7%) incidence of side-effects.
Conclusions: Data found that all triple therapies, irrespective of drug combination and therapy duration, should be abandoned in Italy due to their unacceptable low success rates. Monitoring the efficacy of standard first-line therapies in other countries could be clinically useful for both patients and clinicians.
Co-infection relationship with Epstein-Barr virus in gastroduodenal diseases with Helicobacter Pylori. Quantitative PCR and EBNA-1 gene-based approach
Objective: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are involved in gastric cancer (GC) etiology. EBV/Hp co- infection was thought synergistically increase gastroduodenal disease occurence. We aimed to determine the presence of EBV/Hp co-infection in gastroduodenal diseases.
Methods: The study group had 68 Hp (+) cases [25 GC, 13 IM (intestinal metaplasia), 30 PU (peptic ulcer)], and the control group had 40 NUD (non-ulcer dyspepsia) cases [20 Hp+, 20 Hp-]. EBV-DNA was detected by non-polymorphic EBNA-1 gene-based qPCR. EBV/EBNA-1 IgG levels were determined by quantitative and qualitative ELISA methods, respectively.
Results: EBV-DNA positivity was 32% (8/25), 6.6% (2/30) and 5% (1/20) in GC, PU and NUD Hp (+) cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) between GC (32%) and NUD Hp (+) (5%) cases in terms of EBV-DNA positivity. Mean EBV-DNA copy numbers were 6568.54 ± 20351, 30.60 ± 159.88 and 13.85 ± 61.93 for GC, PU, and NUD, respectively. In terms of the mean EBV-DNA copy number, a significant difference was found between the groups (p = 0.005). In terms of EBV/EBNA-1 IgG antibody positivity, no significant difference was found between GC and NUD cases (p = 0.248). EBV DNA positivity was found to be significant (odds ration [OR] = 26.71 (p=0.009, %95CI 2.286- 312.041) in multivariate logistic regression.
Conclusioin: Although we had a small number of GC cases, it can be suggested that the estimated risk created by the synergistic effect based on the addition of EBV increased 26 times in the presence of Hp in GC.
Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hospitalized cirrhotic patients and associates with a poor outcome
Background and study aims: The role of malnutrition on the prognosis of hospitalized cirrhotic patients is incompletely studied. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition, functional scores and their impact on prognosis of hospitalized cirrhotic patients.
Patients and methods: This retrospective study included all patients with cirrhosis hospitalized in the gastroenterology unit at Saint-Luc university hospital, Brussels between April 2014 and September 2014. Nutritional status was evaluated according to minimum clinical summary diagnostic criteria. Cirrhosis-related complications or death occurrence were analysed in a one-year follow-up.
Results: 95 cirrhotic patients were assessed for nutritional status and outcomes. Malnutrition affected 45.3% of patients and was more frequent with the severity of cirrhosis: 29% in Child-Pugh A, 48.8% in Child-Pugh B and 72.2% in Child-Pugh C patients. 58.9% of patients developed cirrhosis-related complications (60.7% in the malnutrition group vs. 39.3%, p<0.001, OR 5.06, IC95 1.90-14.58) and 33.7% of patients died (68.75% vs. 31.25%, p=0.002, OR 4.33, IC95 1.62-12.28). Adjusting for age, sodium, MELD, Charlson index, hepatocellular carcinoma, platelets, diabetes, prognostic nutritional index and Braden scale, malnutrition was significantly associated with higher mortality and morbidity rates with an OR of 3.56 (CI95 1.55-8.16) and 2.09 (CI95 1.16-3.77) respectively. Braden scale was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.027, OR 1.25, CI95 1.03-1.52) whereas prognostic nutritional index was associated with higher morbidity (p=0.001, OR 0.94, CI95 0.90- 0.98).
Conclusion: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Malnutrition, low prognostic nutritional index and low Braden scale are associated with poor outcomes in cirrhosis.
Validation of Baveno VI and Expanded-Baveno VI Criteria for predicting gastroesophageal varices in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Background and aims: Baveno VI and Expanded-Baveno VI Criteria were validated to rule out high-risk esophageal varices (HRV) and to prevent unneeded endoscopies in compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) mainly related to viral hepatitis. We aim to assess these criteria to rule out low- and high- risk varices in patients with cACLD secondary to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 2016 to 2020. Inclusion criteria were: NAFLD and /or ALD related cACLD, a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ≥ 10 kPa and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) within 12 months. Exclusion criteria were: use of non cardioselective β-blockers, hepatic decompensation, previous variceal bleeding, portal thrombosis, liver cancer, or liver transplant.
Results: One hundred and ninety-four patients were included in this study. Eighty-one patients (42%) met Baveno VI criteria and 103 (53%) met Expanded-Baveno VI criteria. Baveno VI criteria yielded a high negative predictive value (NPV ≥ 95%) for detecting HRV and varices of any size. Expanded-Baveno VI criteria yielded a high NPV ≥ 95% only for detecting HRV: the miss rate for varices of any size was 8%. Expanded-Baveno VI criteria could avoid more endoscopies than the original Baveno VI criteria to rule out HRV (53% versus 42%).
Conclusion: In this study, both criteria showed high NPV to rule out HRV but only original Baveno VI criteria yielded a satisfactory high NPV to rule out varices of any size. Expanded-Baveno VI criteria could avoid more endoscopies to exclude HRV.
Tenofovir alafenamide prophylaxis post-liver transplantation: a real-world study in patients with chronic kidney disease
Background & aims: Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) was shown equally efficacious in suppressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) but with less renal toxicity than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The aim of this real-world study was to evaluate renal function in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients that changed TDF with TAF.
Methods: The TAF group (n=17) included patients who switched to TAF due to low (<60 ml/min/1.73m2) Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). The control group included patients that remained on TDF (n=30), although some (n= 14) had chronic kidney disease (CKD) (TDF-CKD group). GFR was assessed using: i) MDRD-6 variable; ii) CKD-EPI formula; iii) radionuclide technique (rGFR).
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups except for the presence of diabetes and follow-up period, which were more common and shorter, respectively, in the TAF group (35% vs. 10%, p=0.03; 13.7 vs. 35.5 months, p<0.001). At the end of follow-up there were no significant changes in renal function between the TAF and the TDF group or TDF-CKD group, although the numerical change in rGFR in the latter comparison was greater in the TAF group (ΔrGFR 3 vs. -2.14 ml/min, p=0.26). The use of everolimus was associated with improvement in renal function (ΔrGFR 2 vs. -7.75 ml/min, p=0.06 [TAF vs. TDF group]; 2 vs. -12 ml/min, p=0.01 [TAF vs. TDF-CKD group]). There were no TAF- related side effects or cases of HBV recurrence.
Conclusion: Conversion to TAF in post-LT patients who develop CKD does not lead to improvement of kidney function after a period of one year.
Defining prognostic parameters of well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors based on metastatic potential: a two-center experience
Background: Gastric neuroendocrine tumors [gNETs] are heterogeneous tumors and we are still unable to predict the behavior of these tumors. We aim to define the prognostic parameters of well-differentiated gNETs based on metastatic potential and to evaluate the current classification systems.
Patients and methods: We retrospectively retrieved 44 well differentiated gNET cases who underwent radical surgery between 2000-2015 at two tertiary-care centers.
Results: Among the 44 well-differentiated gNET patients, 17 (38%) patients had metastatic disease to lymph nodes and/or distant sites, while 27 (62%) were confined to the stomach. Higher risk of metastasis was observed with increasing tumor size, grade, depth of invasion and with type-3 and solitary tumors. 30 (68%) patients had type-1 gNET and 14 (32%) had type-3 gNET. Majority of the type-1 cases (76,6%) were Grade 1 [G1] and type-3 cases (78,5%) were Grade 3 [G3]. Type-1 subgroup had no G3 tumor, and type-3 had no G1. Grade 2 [G2] tumors were more controversial, with metastatic and non-metastatic cases. G2 cases with a >10% Ki67 expression or type-3, had a worse prognosis. Although most of the type-1 gNETs had an indolent course, 6 of 30 (20%) patients had metastatic disease. Metastasizing type-1 gNETs were >10 mm in diameter or extended to/beyond the submucosa.
Conclusion: Regarding our results, tumor type, grade, size, focality and depth of invasion are the prognostic parameters for gNETs, based on metastatic potential. Besides these parameters, a two-tiered grading system with a 10% Ki-67 proliferation index cut-off value could be considered for right treatment choice.