Home » AGEB Journal » Issues » Volume 86 » Fasc.2 - Case reports

Volume 86 - 2023 - Fasc.2 - Case reports

Endoscopic therapy for Bouveret syndrome, illustrated by a case report

Bouveret syndrome is an exceptionally rare form of gallstone ileus secondary to a bilioenteric fistula, through which a voluminous gallstone can migrate into the pylorus or duodenum, thereby causing gastric outlet obstruction. In order to increase awareness, we reviewed the clinical features, diagnostic tools and management options for this uncommon entity. We specifically focus on endoscopic therapeutic options, illustrated by a case of a 73 year old woman with Bouveret syndrome, where endoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy was successful in relieving gastroduodenal obstruction.


Child with protein losing enteropathy as presentation of collagenous duodenitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Background: Collagenous duodenitis and gastritis are rare histopathological findings in children. Patients and methods: We describe a four-year old girl, who presented with non-bloody diarrhea for two months and progressive edema with an albumin of 16g/dl. Results: The diagnosis of a protein losing enteropathy was made. Extensive investigations withheld only an infectious cause of the protein losing enteropathy (cytomegalovirus and adenovirus). However, the patients still required repetitive albumin infusions 3.5 months after onset of symptoms without spontaneous recovery. Therefore, a new endoscopic work-up was performed. Duodenal biopsies revealed collagen deposition, in association with a high number of eosinophils and mast cells throughout different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions: The collagen deposition seems to be triggered by an eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder. Treatment was started with amino acid-based formula, oral iron therapy, an antihistamine, and a proton pomp inhibitor that resulted in persistent normalization of serum albumin already after 1.5 weeks.


Respiratory involvement in Crohn’s disease: a case report

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects the gastro-intestinal tract. There is however a large array of extra intestinal manifestations (EIM) associated with these diseases. A lesser known EIM is pulmonary involvement, which has been first described in 1973. Since the introduction of HRCT more attention is guided towards this specific involvement. Awareness of pulmonary involvement in IBD-patients may lead to better screening, guide appropriate therapy, and ultimately result in better patient care. When untreated, serious and persisting complications, such as stenosis or strictures of the large airways, as well as bronchiectasis or bronchiolitis obliterans might occur.


Immune checkpoint inhibitor refractory colitis leading to total colectomy in a melanoma patient

Immunotherapy is becoming more and more relevant in the treatment of advanced melanoma. Proper management of its side effects can prevent severe complications. We describe the case of a 73-year-old patient with severe refractory colitis secondary to immunotherapy. The patient has been treated for 6 months with Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1, as adjuvant therapy for locally advanced melanoma. He was admitted to the hospital with a deteriorating general condition associated with severe diarrhea and rectal bleeding for 3 weeks. Despite three lines of treatment (high dose corticosteroids, infliximab, mycophenolate mofetil), the patient still presented clinical and endoscopic colitis, with additional infectious complications. The patient required surgical management for total colectomy. In this article we present one of the rare cases of autoimmune colitis that did not respond to various immunosuppressive treatments and required surgery.


Tofacitinib for celiac disease and microscopic colitis: killing two birds with one stone

Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon. Firstline treatment consists of budesonide, with the consideration of biological agents in refractory cases. Celiac disease is a chronic immune mediated and gluten-induced enteropathy, with treatment consisting of a gluten-free diet. There is an association between microscopic colitis and instead of xand celiac disease, especially in refractory cases they can coincide. In this manuscript, we report for the first time the efficacy of tofacitinib, a pan Janus kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of concomitant microscopic colitis and celiac disease, resulting in persistent clinical and histological remission.


Are elevated systemic bile acids involved in the pathophysiology of sarcopenia and liver injury following gastric bypass?

Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for sustained weight loss in severe obesity. However, recent data describe the development of liver damage and in particular massive steatosis and cholangitis in some patients, for which certain pathophysiological mechanisms are suggested such as bacterial overgrowth, malabsorption or sarcopenia. We describe the case of a patient presenting with a new liver dysfunction 6 years after a gastric bypass. The work-up revealed sarcopenic obesity characterised by low muscle mass and low muscle function as well as elevated fasting bile acids, severe liver steatosis and cholangitis. The pathophysiology of this disease is complex and multifactorial but could include bile acid toxicity. Bile acids are increased in cases of liver steatosis, but also in cases of gastric bypass and malnutrition. In our opinion, they may contribute to the loss of muscle mass and the vicious circle observed in this situation. Treatment with enteral feeding, intravenous albumin supplementation and diuretics reversed the liver dysfunction and the patient was discharged from hospital