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Volume 86 - 2023 - Fasc.3 - Original articles

EUS-guided transrectal drainage of pelvic abscesses: a retrospective analysis of 17 patients

Abstract Background: Pelvic abscess is a common complication of abdominal surgery or intestinal or gynecological diseases. Over the last decades, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to percutaneous or surgical treatment of pelvic abscesses. Aim: To evaluate safety and efficacy of EUS-guided transrectal pelvic abscess drainage in a single center. Methods: From February 2017 to April 2023, all data on patients who were treated for pelvic abscesses by EUS-guided drainage in a single center, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 17 patients were treated for pelvic abscesses by EUS-guided drainage. The procedure was technically successful and uneventful in all 17 patients (100%). Etiology of the abscess was postsurgical (n=5, 29%), secondary to medical illness (n=10, 59%) or gastrointestinal perforation (n=2, 12%). The abscess was multilocular in 5 patients (29%), the mean largest diameter was 76 mm (range 40-146 mm). Drainage was performed using 2 double pigtail stents, and in 1 patient an additional 10 Fr drainage catheter was deployed. Two patients (12%) required a second endoscopic intervention. Treatment success, defined by complete abscess resolution on follow-up CT scan along with symptom relief, was 100%. There was no need for surgical intervention. The median post-procedural hospital stay was 5 days. No recurrence was reported within a median time of follow-up of 39 months. Conclusion: EUS-guided transrectal drainage of pelvic abscesses using double pigtail stents is safe and highly effective. This case series contributes to the cumulative evidence that, in expert hands, EUS-guided drainage should be considered as first-line approach for treatment of pelvic abscesses.


Clinical evaluation of the severity of acute pancreatitis in elderly patients

Background and study aims: Acute pancreatitis incidence in geriatric patients has increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes, laboratory findings of acute pancreatitis among patients aged 65-74 years, 75-84 years and ≥85 years. Patients and methods: This retrospective study analyzed 500 patients aged 65 years and above, who were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis between 2012 and 2022. They were categorized into three groups based on their age: 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and ≥85 years. The primary outcome of the study focused on comparing the hospital mortality rates among the three age groups. The secondary outcomes involved comparing the length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, rates of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and cholecystectomy requirement among the three age groups. Results: The study’s primary outcome is the significantly higher mortality rate in the oldest age group (p=0.002). In addition, patients with a Bedside index score ≥3, severe pancreatitis according to the revised Atlanta criteria, necrotizing pancreatitis, and drug-induced pancreatitis had significantly higher mortality rates. Hospitalized patients in the intensive care unit also showed a statistically significant increase in mortality rates. Interestingly, the rate of cholecystectomy operations was significantly lower in the group with higher mortality (p=0.030). When evaluated in terms of secondary outcomes, no significant difference was found in all three age groups. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that the oldest age group had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to the other age groups. As a result, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are of utmost importance to enhance outcomes in this vulnerable population.


Clinical characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: a comparative cohort study

Background and study aims: The epidemiology of cirrhosis has changed over the last two decades. We aimed to assess whether the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in cirrhosis has changed . Patients and methods: The patients were recruited from the Cirrhosis Registry. This database included patients with cirrhosis who had attended the outpatient’ liver clinic at the Centre Hospitalier Jolimont in La Louvière, Belgium, since January 1995. We extracted data on two cohorts of patients with cirrhosis collected over an identical time period and followed up for the same duration. Results: Cohort 1 included 504 patients enrolled from 1995 to 2005; among them, 89 patients developed HCC during the defined follow-up period (group 1). Cohort 2 included 566 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2016, among whom 73 patients developed HCC during the defined follow-up period (group 2). When patients with HCC in both groups were compared, no differences were found in the age at HCC diagnosis, the test that alerted on the presence of HCC, the extension, and the stage of the lesion at diagnosis. In the group 1, hepatitis C virus-related HCC occurred in 53% of the cases compared with 18% in the group 2 (P<0.001). Alcohol-related HCC occurred in 27% in the group 1 compared with 60% in the group 2 (P<0.001). The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease-related HCC accounted for 10% in all groups. Conclusion: The general epidemiology of HCC has not changed; however the etiology of underlying cirrhosis has changed.