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Volume 86 - 2023 - Fasc.3 - Reviews

Dumping syndrome after bariatric surgery: prevalence, pathophysiology and role in weight reduction – a systematic review

Background: Dumping syndrome is a frequent and wellknown adverse event after bariatric surgery and covers a dynamic spectrum of early and late dumping. Accelerated gastric emptying is generally considered to be the cause of gastrointestinal and vasomotor complaints. However, there is much uncertainty regarding the exact pathophysiology of dumping. It has been speculated that the syndrome is a desired consequence of bariatric surgery and contributes to more efficient weight loss, but supporting data are scarce. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed in July-August 2021. The prevalence of dumping after the most frequently performed bariatric procedures was analyzed, as well as underlying pathophysiology and its role in weight reduction. Results: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with the highest postoperative prevalence of dumping. The fast transit induces neurohumoral changes which contribute to an imbalance between postprandial glucose and insulin levels, resulting in hypoglycemia which is the hallmark of late dumping. Early dumping can, when received in a positive way, become a tool to maintain a strict dietary pattern, but no significant relationship to the degree of weight loss has been shown. However, late dumping is detrimental and promotes overall higher caloric intake. Conclusion: Dumping syndrome is common after bariatric surgery, especially after RYGB. The pathophysiology is complex and ambiguous. Currently available data do not support dumping as a necessary condition to induce weight loss after bariatric surgery.


Local and systemic autoimmune manifestations linked to hepatitis A infection

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) represents a global burdening infectious agent causing in the majority of cases a self-limiting acute icteric syndrome, the outcome is related to the hepatic substrate and the potential pre-existing damage, whereas a plethora of extra-hepatic manifestations has also been reported. Despite the absence of post- HAV chronicity it has been associated with an additional burden on existing chronic liver diseases. Moreover, the induced immune response and the antigenic molecular mimicry are considered as triggering factors of autoimmunity with regional and distal impact. Diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Still’s syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, systematic lupus erythematosus or cryoglobulinemic vasculitis have been described in patients with HAV infection. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, this review aims to accumulate and clarify the pathways related to this linkage.


Novel corticosteroid formulations in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis: what is the evidence?

Background and study aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergen-induced disease of the esophagus. Chronic, eosinophil-predominant inflammation eventually leads to fibrosis, esophageal dysfunction and severe morbidity. Swallowed topical corticosteroids (STCs) are a mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapy in the treatment of active EoE. Data on the efficacy of novel corticosteroid formulations, developed specifically for esophageal delivery, have recently become available. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed aiming to summarize evidence on the role of STCs in the treatment of EoE. Two biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMED, EMBASE) were searched for articles providing original information on the efficacy and safety of STCs in adult EoE patients. Results: Budesonide orodispersible tablet (BOT) and budesonide oral suspension (BOS) both surpassed placebo formulations regarding the efficacy of inducing and maintaining histologic, symptomatic and endoscopic remission. Overall, BOT displayed the highest grade of efficacy with clinico-histologic remission rates up to 75% after 1 year. Fluticasone propionate (APT-1011) achieved and maintained histologic and endoscopic responses in the majority of patients, whereas only a positive trend was demonstrated for symptomatic improvement. Mometasone and ciclesonide were studied in a limited number of smaller-scale trials and placebo-controlled data are required to substantiate the promising findings. All STCs displayed a similar side effects profile and were generally considered safe and well-tolerated. Conclusions: Current evidence supports long-term treatment with novel corticosteroid formulations, challenging the established treatment paradigm of EoE. BOT appears to be the most effective steroid therapy, although head-to-head comparative trials between STCs are needed.


Non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases: a narrative review

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a group of rare diseases characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal wall in a greater amount than in homeostatic conditions. ‘Non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders’ is the umbrella term for all eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders outside of the well known eosinophilic esophagitis. This includes eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic enteritis and eosinophilic colitis. The clinical presentation is atypical and not very different for the three disorders. The depth of infiltration has a bigger influence on the presenting symptoms than the disease location. Although the frequency of diagnosis and research in this subject is increasing over time, non-esophageal eosinophilic disorders are rare and high quality evidence is limited to date. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the latest insights in the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and available treatment options. Transcriptome studies have found the pathogenesis to be T helper type 2 driven. Various laboratory findings can be used to trigger raised suspicion and investigation with endoscopy. As the endoscopic appearance of the mucosa is normal in most cases, multiple biopsies in each segment are needed to quantify the amount of eosinophils in the tissue. Eosinophilic cut-offs for diagnosis are a controversial topic and a consensus is still lacking. A recently developed tissue based diagnostic platform which measures differentially expressed genes might be available in the future to classify patients with intermediate eosinophilic tissue levels under the cut-off. For the treatment, corticosteroids are still the cornerstone of treatment but promising research suggests a role of biologicals, such as Lirentelimab (anti-siglec 8) in particular.


Intestinal helminthic infections: a narrative review to guide the hepatogastroenterologist

Intestinal helminthic infections are not uncommon in Western Europe, mainly due to modern travel, emigration and globalization. Moreover, some helminthic infections are endemic in Western Europe and are part of the everyday clinical practice. The hepatogastroenterologist should therefore recognize and manage these patients or at least refer them to appropriate reference centers. Signs and symptoms are often unspecific or even absent. Discerning the disease at an early stage avoids expensive diagnostic testing, life-threatening complications and in some cases even further spread of the disease. This review article aims to guide the hepatogastroenterologist when suspecting a helminthic infection by addressing the most prevalent symptoms, summarizing the most probable associated helminthic entities, highlighting practical steps in diagnosis and available treatments.


What do we know today about drug-induced microscopic colitis? A case of lymphocytic colitis on olmesartan

Microscopic colitis is part of the differential diagnosis of chronic watery diarrhea. Colonoscopy discloses a normal looking mucosa, therefore its diagnosis is based on histology of colonic biopsies. Two main phenotypes are distinguished: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. A third entity, incomplete microscopic colitis or unspecified microscopic colitis has been reported in the literature. It affects preferentially women over 60 years of age and its association with certain drugs is increasingly established. In case of suspected drug-induced microscopic colitis, identification of the responsible drug is a key to management. After discontinuation of the suspected drug, the gold standard of treatment is budesonide both for induction and for maintenance in case of clinical relapse, as is often the case after discontinuation. Therapy with immunomodulators, biologics, or surgery is reserved for refractory forms of microscopic colitis after multidisciplinary consultation. Through the clinical case of colitis on olmesartan, we will review the latest recommendations on drug-induced microscopic colitis.