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Long-term outcomes of hemostatic therapy for variceal bleeding and the challenge pending in the post-direct-acting antivirals era

Journal Volume 85 - 2022
Issue Fasc.1 - Original articles
Author(s) K. Shibata 1, K. Yokoyama 1, R. Yamauchi 1, K. Matsumoto 1, S. Himeno 1, T. Nagata 1, T. Higashi 1, T. Kitaguchi 1, H. Fukuda 1, N. Tsuchiya 1, A. Fukunaga 1, K. Takata 1, T. Tanaka 1, Y. Takeyama 1, S. Shakado 1, S. Sakisaka 1, F. Hirai 1
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PAGES 7-14
(1) Department of Gastroenterology and Medicine, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan

Background and study aims: This study evaluated the longterm outcomes of mainly endoscopic hemostatic therapy for gastrointestinal variceal bleeding and of the transition of hemostatic therapy.

Patients and methods: Among 1,163 patients treated for gastrointestinal varices between April 2006 and June 2020, a total of 125 patients who underwent emergency hemostatic therapy were enrolled. Survival rates and secondary evaluation points were analyzed. Additionally, patients were classified into two groups: the previous and latter term. Patients’ background, therapeutic method, and treatment results were compared between the groups.

Results: 94.4% had cirrhosis. The average Child-Pugh score was 8.90. Successful primary hemostasis rate was 98.4%, and 5.6% died within 2 weeks, all with a Child-Pugh score ≥9. The respective 1- and 5-year survival rates for Child-Pugh grade A/B were 81.3% and 55.4%, while those for Child-Pugh grade C were 58.1% and 17.8%. Child-Pugh grade C or hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly associated with poor prognosis. In total, 21.6% experienced variceal re-bleeding; 62.9% of these cases were triggered by continued alcohol consumption. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with and without variceal re-bleeding and in post-treatment survival between the previous and latter terms. In the latter term, the number of cases caused by continued alcohol consumption significantly increased.

Conclusions: Multidisciplinary treatment and continuation of proper management after hemostatic therapy for variceal bleeding are crucial. Continued alcohol consumption leads to variceal bleeding and re-bleeding; its proper management, including alcohol abstinence, is one of the major challenges left in the post-directacting antivirals era

Keywords: gastrointestinal hemorrhage, endoscopic variceal hemostasis, alcohol consumption, variceal re-bleeding.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.
PMID 35304988