Novel corticosteroid formulations in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis: what is the evidence?
|Journal||Volume 86 - 2023|
|Issue||Fasc.3 - Reviews|
|Author(s)||S. Walgraeve 1, T. Vanuytsel 2|
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(1) Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
(2) Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Background and study aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food allergen-induced disease of the esophagus. Chronic, eosinophil-predominant inflammation eventually leads to fibrosis, esophageal dysfunction and severe morbidity. Swallowed topical corticosteroids (STCs) are a mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapy in the treatment of active EoE. Data on the efficacy of novel corticosteroid formulations, developed specifically for esophageal delivery, have recently become available.
Methods: A comprehensive review was performed aiming to summarize evidence on the role of STCs in the treatment of EoE. Two biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMED, EMBASE) were searched for articles providing original information on the efficacy and safety of STCs in adult EoE patients.
Results: Budesonide orodispersible tablet (BOT) and budesonide oral suspension (BOS) both surpassed placebo formulations regarding the efficacy of inducing and maintaining histologic, symptomatic and endoscopic remission. Overall, BOT displayed the highest grade of efficacy with clinico-histologic remission rates up to 75% after 1 year. Fluticasone propionate (APT-1011) achieved and maintained histologic and endoscopic responses in the majority of patients, whereas only a positive trend was demonstrated for symptomatic improvement. Mometasone and ciclesonide were studied in a limited number of smaller-scale trials and placebo-controlled data are required to substantiate the promising findings. All STCs displayed a similar side effects profile and were generally considered safe and well-tolerated.
Conclusions: Current evidence supports long-term treatment with novel corticosteroid formulations, challenging the established treatment paradigm of EoE. BOT appears to be the most effective steroid therapy, although head-to-head comparative trials between STCs are needed.
Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dysphagia, pharmacologic treatment, topical corticosteroids, fluticasone, budesonide.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.