Non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases: a narrative review
|Journal||Volume 86 - 2023|
|Issue||Fasc.3 - Reviews|
|Author(s)||J. Janssens 1, T. Vanuytsel 2|
VIEW FREE PDF
(1) Faculty of Medicine, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium
(2) Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a group of rare diseases characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal wall in a greater amount than in homeostatic conditions. ‘Non-esophageal eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders’ is the umbrella term for all eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders outside of the well known eosinophilic esophagitis. This includes eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic enteritis and eosinophilic colitis. The clinical presentation is atypical and not very different for the three disorders. The depth of infiltration has a bigger influence on the presenting symptoms than the disease location. Although the frequency of diagnosis and research in this subject is increasing over time, non-esophageal eosinophilic disorders are rare and high quality evidence is limited to date. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the latest insights in the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and available treatment options. Transcriptome studies have found the pathogenesis to be T helper type 2 driven. Various laboratory findings can be used to trigger raised suspicion and investigation with endoscopy. As the endoscopic appearance of the mucosa is normal in most cases, multiple biopsies in each segment are needed to quantify the amount of eosinophils in the tissue. Eosinophilic cut-offs for diagnosis are a controversial topic and a consensus is still lacking. A recently developed tissue based diagnostic platform which measures differentially expressed genes might be available in the future to classify patients with intermediate eosinophilic tissue levels under the cut-off. For the treatment, corticosteroids are still the cornerstone of treatment but promising research suggests a role of biologicals, such as Lirentelimab (anti-siglec 8) in particular.
Keywords: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic colitis.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.