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Not all pediatric intestinal polyps are alike

Journal Volume 83 - 2020
Issue Fasc.3 - Original articles
Author(s) D. Vermeulen 1, M. Van Winckel 2, S. Vande Velde 2, R. De Bruyne 2, S. Van Biervliet 2, B. De Moerloose 3, L. Matthyssens 4, K. Van Renterghem 4, D. Vandeputte 4
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PAGES 393-397
(1) Vermeulen Drieke, Pediatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
(2) Pediatric gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
(3) Pediatric hemato-oncology and stem cell transplantation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
(4) Gastrointestinal and pediatric surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

Background/Aims: In childhood, clinical presentation of intes- tinal polyps is variable. Painless rectal red blood loss is the most common presenting sign. Most polyps are sporadic, isolated and benign. However, it is important to correctly identify exceptions. Rare inherited polyposis syndromes need to be recognized because of their increased risk of intestinal and extra-intestinal malignancies. Furthermore, a correct diagnosis and treatment of rare gastro-intestinal malignancies is crucial.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2018 we encountered 4 different types of intestinal polyps. A database search was performed and patient files were checked for clinical manifestations and histo- pathology. Literature was searched to recapitulate red flags for these syndromes, probability of underlying genetic disorders and diagnostic criteria.

Results: Between 2016 and 2018, 28 patients presented at the Ghent University Hospital with 30 juvenile polyps. Furthermore, we diagnosed juvenile polyposis syndrome, Li Fraumeni syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in 1 patient each, whilst 2 FAP patients were in follow-up. Each of these diagnoses has a different lifetime risk of (extra)-intestinal malignancy and requires a different approach and follow-up. Histopathology and genetic testing play an important role in identifying these syndromes in pediatric patients.

Conclusion: Although most intestinal polyps in childhood are benign juvenile polyps that require no follow-up, rare inherited syndromes should be considered and correctly diagnosed since adequate follow-up is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality from both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal complications and malignancies.

Keywords: juvenile polyps, polyposis syndrome, FAP, Li Fraumeni, cancer predisposition.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
© Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.
PMID 33094585