Volume 83 - 2020 - Fasc.3 - Case reports
Auto-immune gastritis induced by pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1, in a melanoma patient
We report a case of a 67-years-old woman presenting a severe acute lymphocytic gastritis induced by pembrolizumab, an immune check point inhibitor (ICI). This gastritis was her third auto-immune adverse event after 5 years of treatment with pembrolizumab, it was metabolically active at the PET Scan and confirmed by analysis of the gastric biopsies. Pembrolizumab treatment cessation and high doses of corticosteroids completely normalized the stomach clinically, endoscopically and histologically. This patient was in complete remission of her metastatic melanoma. Therefore, pembrolizumab therapy was not restarted and the patient is still in remission 6 months later. This strategy is supported by recent publications describing a relapse rate inferior to 10% in patients in complete remission after 2 years of immunotherapy.
Particularities of this case are: rareness of this adverse event, late onset after introduction of pembrolizumab, evocative PET scan image, specific endoscopic aspect and histology. In addition, the favorable oncologic evolution of the patient after treatment cessation confirms the prolonged remission after immunotherapy. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 482-484).
EBV : not your Everyday Benign Virus
Background : Epstein-Barr virus infection is common, with seroprevalence of 90% in adults. Clinical presentation of primary EBV infection can be variable and atypical. It is often subclinical or can result in infectious mononucleosis. Clinical course is mostly benign, but in rare cases serious short- and long-term complications may occur.
Case presentation : We present a case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital with general malaise, fever, dyspnea, icterus, vomiting and diarrhea, with acute left upper quadrant pain. She was diagnosed with acute EBV-infection with hepatitis, splenomegaly and spontaneous splenic rupture.
Conclusions : Spontaneous splenic rupture is an uncommon, but potentially fatal complication of infectious mononucleosis. In a patient with suspicion of EBV infection and abdominal pain, we should always be aware of the possibility of spontaneous splenic rupture and emphasis should be put on appropriate counseling. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 485-487).
Ascariasis in common bile duct resulting in a subhepatic abscess
Background : Biliary system ascariasis can be a rare cause of acute abdomen.
Patient report : A 70-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain for two weeks. She complained of a right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain, intermittent vomiting and weight loss. Physical examination showed RUQ and epigastric tenderness without rebound tenderness or guarding. Laboratory finding exhibited leukocytosis and mildly elevated liver enzymes.
Results : Abdominal sonography showed distended gallbladder and a tubular lesion inside the common bile duct (CBD) in favor of a parasitic lesion. A large ascaris roundworm and blood clots were extracted from the CBD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy. After 7 days, the disease process was complicated with a subhepatic abscess formation which was managed conservatively. Finally, the patient was discharged home in fair condition after 12 days of hospitalization.
Conclusions : Ascariasis should be considered in endemic areas and early endoscopic intervention and medical therapy can be effective for extrahepatic involvement. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 488-490).
Choledochoscope-assisted antegrade-retrograde endoscopic dilation of complete esophageal stenosis in a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is a mucocutaneous disorder, characterized by recurrent formation of blisters and scarring. The gastrointestinal tract is commonly affected by the disease and the proximal esophagus is the most common area of involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. The esophageal strictures are common in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa that can lead to complete esophageal stenosis in some cases. The antegrade/retrograde endoscopic dilation is a commonly used method in these patients. Different kinds of endoscopes may be used for the retrograde procedure, such as conventional upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopes, slim-paediatric UGI endoscopes and ultrathin UGI nasal endoscopes. Herein, we reported the first antegrade/retrograde esophageal dilation case performed under choledochoscopic guidance. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2020, 83, 491- 492).