Home » AGEB Journal » Issues » Volume 84 » Fasc.3 - Case reports

Volume 84 - 2021 - Fasc.3 - Case reports

Misleading clinical presentation of carcinoid syndrome

Rare cases of carcinoid syndromes can develop from either gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) without liver metastasis or large retroperitoneal involvement. We report a case of a patient with isolated flushing highly suggestive of carcinoid syndrome caused by an ileal NET with adjacent lymph node metastases but with no liver metastases. The final diagnose was delayed for this patient due to a combination of misleading clinical presentation and negative usual screening tests (urinary 5-HIAA and serum chromogranine A). Given its high sensitivity and specificity, ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE PET confirmed the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor. Therefore, this case reminds clinicians that carcinoid syndrome may manifest as flushing only and highlights that imaging is a major aspect of the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with suspected gastrointestinal NETs.


Regression of multiple hepatocellular adenomas after cessation of oral contraceptive pills: a case report and review of the current literature

Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is an uncommon benign liver neoplasm usually solitary and identified incidentally on imaging. We report a case of a 50-year old female who was diagnosed with multiple hepatic adenomas of the inflammatory subtype. After discontinuation of oral contraception a decrease of both the number and size of the liver lesions was seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the need of further intervention. The major challenge in the clinical management of patients with multiple HCAs resides in the risk assessment for future complications. In the case of multiple HCAs subtype seemed to be more relevant than the actual number of lesions. Because little is known about the natural evolution in patients with multiple HCAs, we performed a review of the current literature with focus on the different subtypes and their clinical relevance.


Unusual intra-rectal “laterally spreading tumour” in immunosuppressed patient with ulcerative colitis

Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a manifestation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection which usually occurs in genital and perianal regions. We report a 46-year-old man with an ulcerative proctitis diagnosed four years earlier, asymptomatic for a long time under azathioprine but without any follow-up for three years. A colonoscopy was performed prior to potential immunosuppressive treatment discontinuation and showed a circumferential “laterally spreading tumour” in the rectum. Surprisingly biopsies revealed a CA with a very focally high-grade intra-epithelial lesion. Azathioprine was stopped and a transanal surgical resection was performed. At guided anamnesis, patient confirmed to be a former active “men who have sex with men”. No recurrence of proctitis occurred despite azathioprine discontinuation. A retrospective review of the histological sections suggests that it was, in fact, an intestinal spirochetosis misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease. Involvement of the rectal mucosa by HPV is a rare condition and this may have been promoted by inappropriate immunosuppressive treatment.


Erythema multiforme in the esophagus

Erythema multiforme is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder. Mucosal involvement usually affects the oral region, the genitals or the eyes. We report a case of esophagitis caused by erythema multiforme in a patient diagnosed with lung cancer. Esophageal manifestation in erythema multiforme is rarely seen. Besides esophagitis it can lead to esophageal strictures. Erythema multiforme is mostly triggered by infection or drugs but the association with malignancy has been described.